我经常看到，当规则只以一种方式定义结构时，无论是参与、学习、尊重还是互动，它们都是有偏见的。只有当老师为学生着想，并考虑到完成事情的多种方式时，我才会认为事情在文化上更体贴。但尤其是初学的老师，他们想要建立一种权威，一种控制。为了做到这一点，学生们必须遵循一种方法。通常，这是一种沉默的方式，安静地坐在你的桌子上，只有老师的指令被听到，并成为一个委派信息的人。这可能会更容易，因为它是安静的，安静的，是老师一直想象的。但是仅仅因为他们沉默了并不意味着学生们在学习。他们需要真正思考，学生需要什么才能成功，需要什么才能融入教材。我认为学生可以分享他们参与和学习的代价。但我想,如果你也有机会问他们,需要做些什么为别人在你的教室里学习,这样他们可以走出自己的,真正考虑同龄人和能够认识到大多数学生很诚实的说,“好吧,我知道我需要这个,但我知道其他人, they may need something a little bit different.” So is there a way to bridge and compromise those sort of differences? I think another way would be to have the teacher consider certain times that prioritize certain structures and other times that prioritize other structures. So the idea of engaging in classroom, some students like to yell out the answers because to them they’re so excited they have it they just cannot wait, as opposed to others who want the opportunity to raise their hand and be able to be called on. I think there’s value in both, but I think there is a time and place for both. And so the teacher can preempt lessons or discussions and saying, “At this time, we are going to accept hands raised only” or “At this time, I just want to hear you shout out the different answers.” I think that allows students to be able to feel accepted in certain places. And I think the teacher also has the opportunity to share with the students the pros and cons of both types of modalities, because to some extent the students need to be able to understand these different structures. They need to be able to recognize that it’s appropriate to do certain types of actions and not so much in the others. Being able to work between different environments can equip the students to be able to succeed in multiple contexts, but also recognize the value of different types of participation in this example so that they can continue to grow as learners.
我认为在你的学年早期制定规则并保持这些规则的一致基础是很重要的。我相信它通过设定课程的预期和结构来创造一个有效的学习环境。我确实有一些基本的规则，但我给我的学生机会来分享他们希望在我们的课堂上看到的事情，我们可以尊重，负责的方式，我们列出一些事情。它允许学生进行对话。如果约翰尼说:“哦，我想我们应该在学校嚼口香糖。”我认为这不应该违反规定。”莎莉可能会说:“嗯，如果我们在学校嚼口香糖，如果它从我们嘴里掉出来，粘在桌子上或粘在鞋子上怎么办?”所以它允许在同辈群体中讨论利弊。我认为这很好，因为他们都有有效的观点。所以我们把它作为一个班级来讨论，我们说，“好吧，作为一个学校，规则是我们不能嚼口香糖，”它涵盖了安全问题和清洁问题。所以我们同意在学校禁止口香糖，但我喜欢学生们提出建议、同意或不同意时出现的机会。 And we do talk about it’s OK not to agree, but we’re going to do it respectfully, and if you have something you would like to say, we don’t have to agree with you. We will respect you, but we don’t have to agree with your statement, such as the gum incident. But it gives the students ownership for the classroom that they’re going to be in all year. So they’re setting these expectations. I hold them to those expectations. And, of course, I make sure that the foundational ones are in there, but they do a great job of covering most of them. And it gives an easier redirect to say, “Look, we agreed we’re going to do this. Are you doing this right now? Take a minute and think about it,” and I’ll leave it at that because they have the chance to see the rules that are in our room hanging on the wall for everyone to see. We write it nice and big as a reminder. It is an easier redirect, even it could be nonverbal, which is even better because then everything keeps flowing. There’s no interruption.
当教师制定课堂规则时，积极地陈述和描述预期的行为，学生参与破坏性行为的次数就会减少。 (Alter & Haydon, 2017;Reinke et al.， 2013)